Italian Verb Conjugation Made Easy (with PDF Chart)

Italian verb conjugation (with PDF table)

Ciao, Italian language enthusiasts! Are you eager to master Italian verb conjugation and communicate like a native speaker?

Our Italian verb conjugation PDF is essential for language learners aiming to excel in the Italian language, and that’s why we’ve created this comprehensive guide to help you along the way.

Unlock the Secrets of Italian Verb Conjugation (with PDF Table)

To make your learning experience even more enjoyable, we’ve prepared a handy downloadable Italian verb conjugation table in PDF, covering different verb groups and Italian tenses.

This guide will delve into regular and irregular verbs, provide examples from various verb types, and demonstrate how to conjugate them in present indicative, simple past, and future tenses. 

Let’s embark on our exciting journey into Italian verb conjugation, and before you know it, you’ll be speaking the language like Italian native speakers!

Before We Begin: The Italian Past Participle

Before diving into the exciting world of Italian verb conjugation, let’s first unlock the secrets of past participles, which are key to mastering the Italian language and understanding compound tenses.

In Italian, the past participle (participio passato) is a verb form that is used to express actions completed in the past. It often functions as an adjective, describing a finished action or a completed state.

The past participle is essential in forming compound tenses like the passato prossimo (present perfect), which requires an auxiliary verb (essere or avere) combined with the past participle of the main verb.

To form the past participle in Italian, verbs follow specific patterns based on their infinitive endings:

  • -ARE Italian verbs: remove the -are ending and add -ato. For example, mangiare (to eat) becomes mangiato (eaten).
  • -ERE Italian verbs: remove the -ere ending and add -uto. For example, vendere (to sell) becomes venduto (sold).
  • -IRE Italian verbs: remove the -ire ending and add -ito. For example, dormire (to sleep) becomes dormito (slept).

Some Italian verbs have irregular past participles, which do not follow these patterns and must be memorized. Examples of irregular past participles include essere (stato), avere (avuto), andare (andato), and fare (fatto). Understanding the appropriate ending for each verb group will make it easier to form compound tenses.

Regular Italian Verbs: Conjugation

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With the foundational rules covered, it’s time to delve into regular Italian verbs and explore the art of conjugating them.

A. -ARE Italian Verbs

Italian verbs are divided into three groups based on their infinitive endings: -are, -ere, and -ire. Let’s start with the most common group, the -ARE verbs. To conjugate these verbs, simply remove the -are ending and add the appropriate endings for each subject pronoun.

Example: Parlare (to speak/talk)

Here’s the verb parlare (to speak/talk) conjugation in the present indicative, past, and future tense.

Verb Parlare: Present Tense
  • Io parlo (I speak)
  • Tu parli (You speak, informal)
  • Lui/Lei parla (He/She speaks)
  • Noi parliamo (We speak)
  • Voi parlate (You all speak)
  • Loro parlano (They speak)
Verb Parlare: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho parlato (I spoke)
  • Tu hai parlato (You spoke, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha parlato (He/She spoke)
  • Noi abbiamo parlato (We spoke)
  • Voi avete parlato (You all spoke)
  • Loro hanno parlato (They spoke)
Verb Parlare: Future Tense
  • Io parlerò (I will speak)
  • Tu parlerai (You will speak, informal)
  • Lui/Lei parlerà (He/She will speak)
  • Noi parleremo (We will speak)
  • Voi parlerete (You all will speak)
  • Loro parleranno (They will speak)

Example: Abitare (to live/reside)

Verb Abitare: Present Tense
  • Io abito (I live)
  • Tu abiti (You live, informal)
  • Lui/Lei abita (He/She ives)
  • Noi abitiamo (We live)
  • Voi abitate (You all live)
  • Loro abitano (They live)
Verb Abitare: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho abitato (I lived)
  • Tu hai abitato (You lived, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha abitato (He/She lived)
  • Noi abbiamo abitato (We lived)
  • Voi avete abitato (You all lived)
  • Loro hanno abitato (They lived)
Verb Abitare: Future Tense
  • Io abiterò (I will live)
  • Tu abiterai (You will live, informal)
  • Lui/Lei abiterà (He/She will live)
  • Noi abiteremo (We will live)
  • Voi abiterete (You all will live)
  • Loro abiteranno (They will live)

Example: Lavare (to wash)

Verb Lavare: Present Tense
  • Io lavo (I wash)
  • Tu lavi (You wash, informal)
  • Lui/Lei lava (He/She washes)
  • Noi laviamo (We wash)
  • Voi lavate (You all wash)
  • Loro lavano (They wash)
Verb Lavare: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho lavato (I washed)
  • Tu hai lavato (You washed, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha lavato (He/She washed)
  • Noi abbiamo lavato (We washed)
  • Voi avete lavato (You all washed)
  • Loro hanno lavato (They washed)
Verb Lavare: Future Tense
  • Io laverò (I will wash)
  • Tu laverai (You will wash, informal)
  • Lui/Lei laverà (He/She will wash)
  • Noi laveremo (We will wash)
  • Voi laverete (You all will wash)
  • Loro laveranno (They will wash)

Other common -ARE Italian verbs that follow the same conjugation rules are:

  • Cercare (to search/look for)
  • Mangiare (to eat)
  • Insegnare (to teach)
  • Comprare (to buy)
  • Ascoltare (to listen)
  • Lavorare (to work)
  • Camminare (to walk)
  • Pregare (to pray)
  • Ballare (to dance)
  • Telefonare (to call)

Suggested Reading: How to Say Eat in Italian: Your Guide to Mangiare

B. -ERE Italian Verbs

Next, let’s explore the -ERE verbs. Like -ARE verbs, you’ll remove the -ere ending and add the appropriate endings for each subject pronoun.

Example: Prendere (to take/grab/have/catch/get)

Verb Prendere: Present Tense
  • Io prendo (I take)
  • Tu prendi (You take, informal)
  • Lui/Lei prende (He/She takes)
  • Noi prendiamo (We take)
  • Voi prendete (You all take)
  • Loro prendono (They take)
Verb Prendere: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho preso (I took)
  • Tu hai preso (You took, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha preso (He/She took)
  • Noi abbiamo preso (We took)
  • Voi avete preso (You all took)
  • Loro hanno preso (They took)
Verb Prendere: Future Tense
  • Io prenderò (I will take)
  • Tu prenderai (You will take, informal)
  • Lui/Lei prenderà (He/She will take)
  • Noi prenderemo (We will take)
  • Voi prenderete (You all will take)
  • Loro prenderanno (They will take)

Example: Vedere (to see)

Verb Vedere: Present Tense
  • Io vedo (I see)
  • Tu vedi (You see, informal)
  • Lui/Lei vede (He/She sees)
  • Noi vediamo (We see)
  • Voi vedete (You all see)
  • Loro vedono (They see)
Verb Vedere: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho visto (I saw)
  • Tu hai visto (You saw, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha visto (He/She saw)
  • Noi abbiamo visto (We saw)
  • Voi avete visto (You all saw)
  • Loro hanno visto (They saw)
Verb Vedere: Future Tense
  • Io vedrò (I will see)
  • Tu vedrai (You will see, informal)
  • Lui/Lei vedrà (He/She will see)
  • Noi vedremo (We will see)
  • Voi vedrete (You all will see)
  • Loro vedranno (They will see)

Example: Dovere (must/have to/owe)

Verb Dovere: Present Tense
  • Io devo (I must)
  • Tu devi (You must, informal)
  • Lui/Lei deve (He/She must)
  • Noi dobbiamo (We must)
  • Voi dovete (You all must)
  • Loro devono (They must)
Verb Dovere: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho dovuto (I had to)
  • Tu hai dovuto (You had to, informal)
  • Lui/Lei hadovuto (He/She had to)
  • Noi abbiamo dovuto (We had to)
  • Voi avete dovuto (You all had to)
  • Loro hanno dovuto (They had to)
Verb Dovere: Future Tense
  • Io dovrò (I will have to)
  • Tu dovrai (You will have to, informal)
  • Lui/Lei dovrà (He/She will have to)
  • Noi dovremo (We will have to)
  • Voi dovrete (You all will have to)
  • Loro dovranno (They will have to)

Other common -ERE Italian verbs that follow the same conjugation rules are:

  • Leggere (to read)
  • Scrivere (to write)
  • Vivere (to live)
  • Chiedere (to ask)
  • Correre (to run)
  • Crescere (to grow)
  • Battere (to beat)
  • Vendere (to sell)
  • Promettere (to promise)
  • Togliere (to remove)

C. -IRE Italian Verbs

Lastly, let’s examine the -IRE Italian verbs. Once again, remove the -ire ending and add the appropriate endings for each subject pronoun.

Example: Capire (to understand)

Verb Capire: Present Tense
  • Io capisco (I understand)
  • Tu capisci (You understand, informal)
  • Lui/Lei capisce (He/She understands)
  • Noi capiamo (We understand)
  • Voi capite (You all understand)
  • Loro capiscono (They understand)
Verb Capire: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho capito (I understood)
  • Tu hai capito (You understood, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha capito (He/She understood)
  • Noi abbiamo capito (We understood)
  • Voi avete capito (You all understood)
  • Loro hanno capito (They understood)
Verb Capire: Future Tense
  • Io capirò (I will understand)
  • Tu capirai (You will understand, informal)
  • Lui/Lei capirà (He/She will understand)
  • Noi capiremo (We will understand)
  • Voi capirete (You all will understand)
  • Loro capiranno (They will understand)

Example: Finire (to end/finish)

Verb Finire: Present Tense
  • Io finisco (I finish)
  • Tu finisci (You finish, informal)
  • Lui/Lei finisce (He/She finishes)
  • Noi finiamo (We finish)
  • Voi finite (You all finish)
  • Loro finiscono (They finish)
Verb Finire: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io ho finito (I finished)
  • Tu hai finito (You finished, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha finito (He/She finished)
  • Noi abbiamo finito (We finished)
  • Voi avete finito (You all finished)
  • Loro hanno finito (They finished)
Verb Finire: Future Tense
  • Io finirò (I will finish)
  • Tu finirai (You will finish, informal)
  • Lui/Lei finirà (He/She will finish)
  • Noi finiremo (We will finish)
  • Voi finirete (You all will finish)
  • Loro finiranno (They will finish)

Example: Uscire (to exit/go out)

Verb Uscire: Present Tense
  • Io esco (I go out)
  • Tu esci (You go out, informal)
  • Lui/Lei esce (He/She goes out)
  • Noi usciamo (We go out)
  • Voi uscite (You all go out)
  • Loro escono (They go out)
Verb Uscire: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)
  • Io sono uscito/a (I went out)
  • Tu sei uscito/a (You went out, informal)
  • Lui è uscito (He went out)
  • Lei è uscita (She went out)
  • Noi siamo usciti/e (We went out)
  • Voi siete usciti/e (You all went out)
  • Loro sono usciti/e (They went out)
Verb Uscire: Future Tense
  • Io uscirò (I will go out)
  • Tu uscirai (You will go out, informal)
  • Lui/Lei uscirà (He/She will go out)
  • Noi usciremo (We will go out)
  • Voi uscirete (You all will go out)
  • Loro usciranno (They will go out)

Other common -IRE Italian verbs that follow the same conjugation rules are:

  • Dormire (to sleep). Learn how to conjugate the verb dormire.
  • Aprire (to open)
  • Offrire (to offer)
  • Coprire (to cover)
  • Scoprire (to discover)
  • Partire (to leave/depart)
  • Sopportare (to bear/stand)
  • Sorrìdere (to smile)
  • Investire (to invest)
  • Costruire (to build)

Need a basic Italian grammar refresh? – Check out our concise Italian grammar basics guide for a quick yet effective review of the basics!

Irregular Italian Verbs: Conjugation

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Irregular verbs do not follow the regular conjugation patterns we’ve just discussed. The most important irregular verbs are essere (to be) and avere (to have). These verbs are crucial because they are used as auxiliary verbs to form compound tenses.

A. The Italian Verb Essere (to be)

Verb Essere: Present Tense

  • Io sono (I am)
  • Tu sei (You are, informal)
  • Lui/Lei è (He/She is)
  • Noi siamo (We are)
  • Voi siete (You all are)
  • Loro sono (They are)

Verb Essere: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo)

  • Io sono stato/a (I was)
  • Tu sei stato/a (You were, informal)
  • Lui è stato (He was)
  • Lei è stata (She was)
  • Noi siamo stati/e (We were)
  • Voi siete stati/e (You all were)
  • Loro sono stati/e (They were)

Verb Essere: Future Tense

  • Io sarò (I will be)
  • Tu sarai (You will be, informal)
  • Lui/Lei sarà (He/She will be)
  • Noi saremo (We will be)
  • Voi sarete (You all will be)
  • Loro saranno (They will be)

Notice the different endings for the first person plural (noi) and the third person plural (loro).

B. The Italian Verb Avere (to have)

Verb Avere: Present Tense

  • Io ho (I have)
  • Tu hai (You have, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha (He/She has)
  • Noi abbiamo (We have)
  • Voi avete (You all have)
  • Loro hanno (They have)

Verb Avere: Past Tense (Passato Prossimo – Avere Conjugation)

  • Io ho avuto (I had)
  • Tu hai avuto (You had, informal)
  • Lui/Lei ha avuto (He/She had)
  • Noi abbiamo avuto (We had)
  • Voi avete avuto (You all had)
  • Loro hanno avuto (They had)

Verb Avere: Future Tense

  • Io avrò (I will have)
  • Tu avrai (You will have, informal)
  • Lui/Lei avrà (He/She will have)
  • Noi avremo (We will have)
  • Voi avrete (You all will have)
  • Loro avranno (They will have)

C. Other Irregular Italian Verbs

We’ve covered the conjugation of some example verbs above, but here’s a quick list of common irregular verbs:

  • Andare (to go)
  • Stare (to be/stay)
  • Fare (to do/make)
  • Dare (to give)
  • Guardare (to watch/look at)
  • Potere (can/may/be able to)
  • Volere (to want)
  • Sapere (to know/be aware of)
  • Conoscere (to know/be acquainted with)
  • Mettere (to put)
  • Dire (to say/tell)
  • Sentire (to hear/feel/smell/taste)
  • Venire (to come).

The conjugation pattern may vary in different tenses for each of these verbs. Learning and memorizing these simple tense conjugations is essential to use them correctly in your Italian conversations. Here are some examples of irregular verbs in the present tense. You will also find these verbs in the downloadable Italian verb conjugation PDF table.

Verb Andare (to go): Present Tense

  • Io vado (I go)
  • Tu vai (You go)
  • Lui/Lei va (He/She goes)
  • Noi andiamo (We go)
  • Voi andate (You all go)
  • Loro vanno (They go)

Verb Fare (to do/make): Present Tense

  • Io faccio (I do/make)
  • Tu fai (You do/make)
  • Lui/Lei fa (He/She does/makes)
  • Noi facciamo (We do/make)
  • Voi fate (You all do/make)
  • Loro fanno (They do/make)

Verb Venire (to come): Present Tense

  • Io vengo (I come)
  • Tu vieni (You come)
  • Lui/Lei viene (He/She comes)
  • Noi veniamo (We come)
  • Voi venite (You all come)
  • Loro vengono (They come)

Mastering the Magic of Compound Tenses

Understanding compound tenses is a crucial aspect of Italian grammar that greatly enhances your ability to conjugate verbs effectively. Grasping this concept will empower you to convey intricate actions and bring depth to your conversations.

In Italian, compound tenses (tempi composti) are verb tenses that express actions or states using a combination of an auxiliary verb and a main verb in its past participle form. Compound tenses convey more complex information about an action, such as its completion, duration, or relation to another action.

Two auxiliary verbs are used to form compound tenses in Italian: essere (to be) and avere (to have). The choice of the auxiliary verb depends on the main verb, its transitivity, and the context in which it is used. Some common Italian compound tenses include:

  • Passato prossimo (present perfect): Describes a past action that has relevance to the present or occurred recently. It is formed by combining the present tense of the auxiliary verb with the past participle of the main verb. For example: “Ho mangiato” (I have eaten).
  • Trapassato prossimo (past perfect): Indicates an action that occurred before another action in the past. It is formed using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb and the past participle of the main verb. For example: “Avevo mangiato” (I had eaten).
  • Futuro anteriore (future perfect): Refers to an action that will be completed before another future action or time. It is formed using the auxiliary verb’s future tense and the main verb’s past participle. For example: “Avrò mangiato” (I will have eaten).
  • Passato remoto (preterite): Although not a compound tense, it is worth mentioning as it describes completed past actions, particularly in written narratives and formal speech. It is a simple tense with unique conjugation patterns.

Congratulations on making it through this comprehensive guide on Italian verb conjugation (with PDF chart). We’ve covered regular and irregular verbs in different tenses, which should provide a solid foundation to continue improving your Italian language skills.

Don’t forget to download the Italian verb conjugation PDF table as a helpful reference while you practice conjugating verbs on your own.

Practicing Italian grammar is key to mastering Italian verb conjugation. Try incorporating these conjugations into daily conversations, writing exercises, and reading activities. Another great way to practice is by listening to Italian podcasts.

Over time, you’ll develop an instinct for using the correct conjugation, and you’ll be well on your way to speaking Italian like a pro!

Grazie mille for joining us on this linguistic adventure! We wish you the best of luck in your Italian language journey. Stay tuned for more helpful language guides and resources, and, as always, happy learning! Buon divertimento e in bocca al lupo!

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